US State Mount Rushmore: Part 3 – Hawaii to Iowa

So two down. Yes, I know that there will be some white people complaining about Florida’s all black lineup, perhaps saying that there are plenty of famous white Floridians, too. However, I didn’t compile these Mount Rushmore sets based on race. And it’s just turned out that the figures I had for Florida had accomplishments that can’t possibly be ignored. The fact they’re black is just a coincidence. Anyway, in this selection, I bring you the Mount Rushmores from Hawaii to Iowa. From Hawaii hails a Chinese cop who inspired a popular detective, an explorer who rediscovered a lost Inca citadel, and two Hawaiian monarchs. Then we’re off to Idaho where you’ll meet 4 people whose accomplishments weren’t small potatoes like an FBI agent who brought down a US president, a guy who invented television, a literary expatriate, and a lady guide for Lewis and Clark. Next, it’s on to Illinois where you have a great emancipator, one of the best known gangsters in Prohibition, a pioneer in social work, and a libertarian Nobel Prize winning economist. After that is Indiana where you’ll find a Depression Era rock star criminal, a pioneer in human sexuality, a journalist who wrote about the little guy, and a the biggest name in Progressive Era Socialism. Finally, you have Iowa where you’ll meet the guy behind one of the most famous American paintings, a man who had a Wild West show, a highly noted conservationist, and perhaps the best known big band leader of all time.

 

11. Hawaii

Though Charlie Chan was played by a white guy in the movies, he was at least partly inspired by a real Chinese Hawaiian detective named Chang Apana who had a very distinguished and adventurous career in the Honolulu Police Department. However, Earl Derr Biggers' widow disputes this but you know, he was pretty awesome in his own way.

Though Charlie Chan was played by a white guy in the movies, he was at least partly inspired by a real Chinese Hawaiian detective named Chang Apana who had a very distinguished and adventurous career in the Honolulu Police Department. However, Earl Derr Biggers’ widow disputes this but you know, he was pretty awesome in his own way.

Figure 1: Chang Apana– Chinese Hawaiian member of the Honolulu Police Department for 34 years as an officer and detective who was acknowledged by Earl Derr Biggers as the inspiration for Charlie Chan. Was successful in solving many cases due to his fluency in several languages, his wide network of informants, and meticulous detective style.

While he was from a family of famous missionaries, Hiram Bingham III rediscovered the ruins of the lost Inca citadel of Machu Picchu with the help of indigenous farmers. Nevertheless, while he does seem like he's in Indiana Jones mode here, he thankfully didn't destroy it.

While he was from a family of famous missionaries, Hiram Bingham III rediscovered the ruins of the lost Inca citadel of Machu Picchu with the help of indigenous farmers. Nevertheless, while he does seem like he’s in Indiana Jones mode here, he thankfully didn’t destroy it.

Figure 2: Hiram Bingham III– explorer, academic, and politician who made public the existence of the Inca citadel of Machu Picchu in 1911 with the guidance of local indigenous farmers. Later became a US Senator.

Through alliances and conquest, King Kamehameha I united Hawaii and established a kingdom. While it did outlive him, it didn't survive the 19th century due to American Imperialism.

Through alliances and conquest, King Kamehameha I united Hawaii and established a kingdom. While it did outlive him, it didn’t survive the 19th century due to American Imperialism.

Figure 3: Kamehameha I– established the Kingdom of Hawaii after uniting most of the islands through conquest as well as developed alliances with the major Pacific colonial powers which preserved Hawaii’s independence under his rule. Remembered for the Kānāwai Māmalahoe, the “Law of the Splintered Paddle”, which protects human rights of non-combatants in times of battle.

Queen Liliʻuokalani was Hawaii's first and last reigning queen as well as its last reigning monarch. In 1895, she was forcibly removed from her throne while Hawaii was annexed to the United States. Was also an accomplished author and songwriter with her “Aloha Oe” being Hawaii's state song.

Queen Liliʻuokalani was Hawaii’s first and last reigning queen as well as its last reigning monarch. In 1895, she was forcibly removed from her throne while Hawaii was annexed to the United States. Was also an accomplished author and songwriter with her “Aloha Oe” being Hawaii’s state song.

Figure 4: Liliʻuokalani– last monarch of the Kingdom of Hawaii from 1891-1893 when she was deposed and Hawaii was annexed to the US. Was also an accomplished author with her book Hawaiʻi’s Story by Hawaiʻi’s Queen as well as songwriter and musician who wrote the “Aloha Oe” which is Hawaii’s state song.

 

12. Idaho

As "Deep Throat," W. Mark Felt leaked information about Watergate to Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein eventually proved vital in bringing down Richard Nixon's presidency. However, his involvement as "Deep Throat" was kept a secret for decades until he revealed it in 2005. He died 3 years later.

As “Deep Throat,” W. Mark Felt leaked information about Watergate to Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein eventually proved vital in bringing down Richard Nixon’s presidency. However, his involvement as “Deep Throat” was kept a secret for decades until he revealed it in 2005. He died 3 years later.

Figure 1: W. Mark Felt– FBI Special Agent who rose to the Bureau’s Associate Director and was the Watergate scandal’s whistleblower referred to as “Deep Throat” in which he provided the Washington Post with critical information that eventually led to Richard Nixon’s resignation in 1974. His involvement with Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein was kept a secret for nearly 30 years. It is alleged he blew the whistle on Watergate as revenge against Nixon for passing him over for Bureau Director that he thought he deserved and giving it L. Patrick Gray whom he resented and didn’t think was up for the job.

In America, a man like Philo Farnsworth should be a household name since he was the inventor of television which has changed the world significantly. However, he's not as well known as he should be. Also appeared on TV once in his life in 1957 for a CBS quiz show I've Got a Secret.

In America, a man like Philo Farnsworth should be a household name since he was the inventor of television which has changed the world significantly. However, he’s not as well known as he should be. Also appeared on TV once in his life in 1957 for a CBS quiz show I’ve Got a Secret.

Figure 2: Philo Farnsworth– inventor and TV pioneer who made many contributions that were crucial to the early development of all-electronic television. Perhaps best known for his 1927 invention of the first fully functional all-electronic image pickup device (video camera tube), the “image dissector”, as well as the first fully functional and complete all-electronic television system. Was also the first person to demonstrate such a system to the public. Developed a TV system complete with receiver and camera which he produced commercially in the form of Farnsworth Television and Radio Corporation from 1938-1951. Held 300 patents mostly in TV and radio. Later in life, invented a small nuclear fusion device the Farnsworth–Hirsch fusor, or simply “fusor”, employing inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) that has been the acknowledged inspiration for other fusion approaches including the Polywell reactor concept in terms of a general approach to fusion design.

As an expatriate editor for several American literary magazines in London, Ezra Pound was a significant figure in the early modernist movement during the early 20th century. As a poet, he developed Imagism which was inspired by Chinese and Japanese poetry.

As an expatriate editor for several American literary magazines in London, Ezra Pound was a significant figure in the early modernist movement during the early 20th century. As a poet, he developed Imagism which was inspired by Chinese and Japanese poetry.

Figure 3: Ezra Pound– expatriate poet and critic as well as major figure in the modernist movement. Contribution to poetry began with his development of Imagism, a movement derived from classical Chinese and Japanese poetry, stressing clarity, precision and economy of language. Helped discover and shape the work of contemporaries T. S. Eliot, James Joyce, Robert Frost, and Ernest Hemingway. Was responsible for the 1915 publication of Eliot’s “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock” and the serialization from 1918 of Joyce’s Ulysses, while he was a foreign editor of several American magazines in London. Embraced Benito Mussolini’s Italian fascism during the 1930s and 1940s as well as expressed support for Hitler and wrote for publications owned by British fascist Oswald Mosley as well as made several propaganda speeches against the US, FDR, and the Jews during WWII.

While no contemporary portrait exists of Sacagawea, familiarity with the western landscape and several Indian tribes proved vital for the Lewis and Clark expedition. One highlight was when she came to her Shoshone people and broke down in tears when trying to translate when she discovered that the the leader was her brother she hadn't seen in years.

While no contemporary portrait exists of Sacagawea, familiarity with the western landscape and several Indian tribes proved vital for the Lewis and Clark expedition. One highlight was when she came to her Shoshone people and broke down in tears when trying to translate when she discovered that the the leader was her brother she hadn’t seen in years.

Figure 4: Sacagawea– a Lemhi Shoshone woman who helped the Lewis and Clark Expedition achieve each of its chartered mission objectives exploring the Louisiana Purchase. With the expedition between 1804 and 1806, she traveled thousands of miles from North Dakota to the Pacific Ocean, establishing cultural contacts with Native American populations, and researched natural history. The National American Woman Suffrage Association of the early 20th century adopted her as a symbol of women’s worth and independence, erecting several statues and plaques in her memory, and doing much to spread the story of her accomplishments.

 

13. Illinois

"Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate, we can not consecrate, we can not hallow, this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us — that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion — that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain — that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom — and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth." - Gettysburg Address

“Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate, we can not consecrate, we can not hallow, this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us — that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion — that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain — that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom — and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.” – Gettysburg Address

Figure 1: Abraham Lincoln– US president who led the country through the American Civil War-its bloodiest war and an event often considered its greatest moral, constitutional, and political crisis. In doing so, he preserved the union, abolished slavery, strengthened the federal government, and modernized the economy. Key moments in his life are his highly publicized debates against Stephen Douglas during the 1858 Senate election, his election to the presidency in 1860 which sparked the formation of the Confederacy, issuing the Emancipation Proclamation, confronting his opponents by pitting them against each other and carefully planned political patronage, appointing Ulysses S. Grant as commander of Union forces, pushing the 13th Amendment through Congress that outlawed slavery permanently, and his Second Inaugural Address. His Gettysburg Address has become an iconic endorsement of the principles of nationalism, republicanism, equal rights, liberty, and democracy. Has been consistently ranked both by scholars and the public as one of the 3 greatest US presidents, if not the greatest president the US has ever had.

In his public persona, Al Capone would seem to you like a big, friendly guy you'd want to have a beer with. However, keep in mind that this guy dominated Chicago as head of an organized crime syndicate during Prohibition. And it's very likely that he was involved in the Saint Valentine's Day Massacre. But at least you can be grateful that he was brought down by the IRS.

In his public persona, Al Capone would seem to you like a big, friendly guy you’d want to have a beer with. However, keep in mind that this guy dominated Chicago as head of an organized crime syndicate during Prohibition. And it’s very likely that he was involved in the Saint Valentine’s Day Massacre. But at least you can be grateful that he was brought down by the IRS.

Figure 2: Al Capone– gangster who attained fame during the Prohibition Era as the co-founder of the Chicago Outfit of which he reigned as crime boss for 7 years in which he expanded the bootlegging business through increasingly violent means as well as his mutually profitable relationships with mayor William Hale Thompson and the city’s police kept him seemingly safe from law enforcement. Though styled himself as a “modern day Robin Hood” and reveled in media attention, his image would be forever tarnished by the Saint Valentine’s Day Massacre which resulted in the killing of 7 rival gang members in broad daylight which led influential citizens to demand government action and newspapers to dub him “Public Enemy No.1.” Details of his reign, his flashy fashion sense, his colorful personality, and eventual fall and imprisonment for tax evasion have made him the most famous American Prohibition gangster of all time.

As founder of Chicago's Hull House, Jane Addams was one of the most prominent reformers of the Progressive Era, the first American woman to win a Nobel Peace Prize, and pioneer in the social work profession. She was instrumental in turning America to issues of concern to mothers, such as the needs of children, local public health, and world peace. Why isn't she more famous in this country I have no idea. Because she really deserves to be remembered.

As founder of Chicago’s Hull House, Jane Addams was one of the most prominent reformers of the Progressive Era, the first American woman to win a Nobel Peace Prize, and pioneer in the social work profession. She was instrumental in turning America to issues of concern to mothers, such as the needs of children, local public health, and world peace. Why isn’t she more famous in this country I have no idea. Because she really deserves to be remembered.

Figure 3: Jane Addams- pioneer settlement activist/reformer, social worker, public philosopher, sociologist, author, and leader in women’s suffrage and world peace who created the first Hull House in Chicago, co-founded the ACLU, as well as became one of the most prominent reformers of the Progressive Era. Helped turn American issues of concern to mothers, such as needs of children, local public health, and world peace. Became a role model for middle-class women who volunteered to uplift their communities. Was the first American woman to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize and is recognized as the founder of the social work profession.

I'm no admirer of Milton Friedman nor do I support his economic theories. However, I do admit that his ideas have influenced so many politicians, particularly Republicans and Libertarians. And he has been cited by The Economist as, "the most influential economist of the second half of the 20th century ... possibly of all of it."

I’m no admirer of Milton Friedman nor do I support his economic theories. However, I do admit that his ideas have influenced so many politicians, particularly Republicans and Libertarians. And he has been cited by The Economist as, “the most influential economist of the second half of the 20th century … possibly of all of it.”

Figure 4: Milton Friedman– Nobel Prize winning economist for his research on consumption analysis, monetary history and theory and the complexity of stabilization policy. His political philosophy extolled the virtues of a free market economic system with minimal intervention. advocated policies such as a volunteer military, freely floating exchange rates, abolition of medical licenses, a negative income tax, ending the Federal Reserve, abolishing Social Security, and school vouchers (with volunteer military being his only good idea). Works include many monographs, books, scholarly articles, papers, magazine columns, television programs, and lectures, and cover a broad range of economic topics and public policy issues. Was an advisor to Ronald Reagan, Margaret Thatcher, and Augusto Pinochet. Has been very influential in Republican and Libertarian politics.

 

14. Indiana

As a Depression-Era outlaw, John Dillinger stood out as the most notorious of all even among more violent criminals like Pretty Boy Floyd, Baby Face Nelson, and Bonnie and Clyde. However, the fact he escaped prison by fooling 17 guards with a gun made from a potato might have something to do with it.

As a Depression-Era outlaw, John Dillinger stood out as the most notorious of all even among more violent criminals like Pretty Boy Floyd, Baby Face Nelson, and Bonnie and Clyde. However, the fact he escaped prison by fooling 17 guards with a gun made from a potato might have something to do with it.

Figure 1: John Dillinger– infamous gangster during the Great Depression who operated with a group of men known by some as the Dillinger Gang or Terror Gang that were, among other activities, accused of robbing 24 banks and 4 police stations. Escaped from jail twice. Seen as the most notorious of Depression-era outlaws, standing out among more violent criminals like Baby Face Nelson, Pretty Boy Floyd, and Bonnie and Clyde. Courted publicity by styling himself as a Robin Hood figure and the media ran exaggerated accounts of his bravado and colorful personality, causing the government to demand federal action. As a result, J. Edgar Hoover developed a more sophisticated FBI as a weapon against organized crime using him and his gang as his campaign platform.

While professor at the University of Indiana, Alfred Kinsey was a pioneer in the field of researching human sexuality which made him a controversial figure. Nevertheless, his work has had significant impact on our culture ever since.

While professor at the University of Indiana, Alfred Kinsey was a pioneer in the field of researching human sexuality which made him a controversial figure. Nevertheless, his work has had significant impact on our culture ever since.

Figure 2: Alfred Kinsey– biologist, professor of entomology and zoology, and sexologist who in 1947 founded the Institute for Sex Research at Indiana University, now known as the Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction. Best known for writing Sexual Behavior in the Human Male and Sexual Behavior in the Human Female which are also known as the Kinsey Reports as well as the Kinsey Scale. While research on human sexuality, foundational to the field of sexology, provoked controversy in the 1940s and 1950s, his work has influenced cultural values in the US and worldwide.

While many journalists get attention through interviewing larger than life figures, Ernie Pyle earned acclaim by traveling across the country writing about ordinary people, especially in rural areas. As a WWII correspondent, he hung out with American GIs and won a Pulitzer Prize for it.

While many journalists get attention through interviewing larger than life figures, Ernie Pyle earned acclaim by traveling across the country writing about ordinary people, especially in rural areas. As a WWII correspondent, he hung out with American GIs and won a Pulitzer Prize for it.

Figure 3: Ernie Pyle– journalist who as a roving correspondent for the Scripps-Howard newspaper chain, earned wide acclaim for his accounts of ordinary people and later of ordinary American soldiers during WWII, lending the same folksy style to his war-time reports before being killed by enemy fire on lejima during the Battle of Okinawa. Syndicated column ran in more than 300 newspapers nationwide and at the time of his death he was among the best known American war correspondents as well as won the Pulitzer Prize in 1944 for his spare, poignant accounts of “dogface” infantry soldiers from a first person perspective. Harry Truman wrote of him, “No man in this war has so well told the story of the American fighting man as American fighting men wanted it told. He deserves the gratitude of all his countrymen.”

"I am not a Labor Leader; I do not want you to follow me or anyone else; if you are looking for a Moses to lead you out of this capitalist wilderness, you will stay right where you are. I would not lead you into the promised land if I could, because if I led you in, some one else would lead you out. You must use your heads as well as your hands, and get yourself out of your present condition; as it is now the capitalists use your heads and your hands."

“I am not a Labor Leader; I do not want you to follow me or anyone else; if you are looking for a Moses to lead you out of this capitalist wilderness, you will stay right where you are. I would not lead you into the promised land if I could, because if I led you in, some one else would lead you out. You must use your heads as well as your hands, and get yourself out of your present condition; as it is now the capitalists use your heads and your hands.”

Figure 4: Eugene V. Debs– union leader who was one of the founding members of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) and 5 time presidential candidate of the Socialist Party of America, once running his 1920 presidential campaign from prison. His candidacies and work with labor movements led him to become one of the best known Socialists in America. Helped motivate the American Left as a measure of political opposition to corporations and WWI. Honored by socialists, communists, and anarchists for his compassion for the labor movement and his motivation to have the average working man build socialism without large state involvement. Has been cited as the inspiration for numerous politicians.

 

15. Iowa

He may not look very remarkable but this Grant Wood who brought you American Gothic which as become an iconic painting of 20th century America. You've probably seen it.

He may not look very remarkable but this Grant Wood who brought you American Gothic which as become an iconic painting of 20th century America. You’ve probably seen it.

Figure 1: Grant Wood– painter best known for his paintings depicting the American Midwest, particularly American Gothic which has become the iconic painting of the 20th century. His painting Foundation in Education is on Iowa’s state quarter.

William "Buffalo Bill" Cody is best known for his Wild West Shows that have shaped how we came to perceive the American West. Were they 100% accurate? No. But they were highly popular around the globe.

William “Buffalo Bill” Cody is best known for his Wild West Shows that have shaped how we came to perceive the American West. Were they 100% accurate? No. But they were highly popular around the globe.

Figure 2: William Frederick “Buffalo Bill” Cody– scout, bison hunter, and showman who became a Pony Express rider at 14, served for the Union during the American Civil War, and was a civilian scout for the US Army during the Indian Wars for which he received a Medal of Honor. One of the most colorful figures of the American West, he founded Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show in 1883 which provided education and entertainment about bronco riding, handling bovine and equine livestock, roping, and other herdsman skills seen in present day rodeos. Despite that he’s said to have killed 4,282 bison in 18 months and the cultural western myths his shows projected that have now become part of the American Western ethos, he was said to respect Native Americans and support their rights as well as believed in conservation and equal pay for women.

"Modern natural history deals only incidentally with the identity of plants and animals, and only incidentally with their habits and behaviors. It deals principally with their relations to each other, their relation to the soil and water in which they grow, and their relations to the human beings who sing about 'my country' but see little or nothing of its inner workings. This new science of relationships is called ecology, but what we call it matters nothing. The question is, does the educated citizen know he is only a cog in an ecological mechanism? That if he will work with that mechanism his mental wealth and his material wealth can expand indefinitely? But that if he refuses to work with it, it will ultimately grind him to dust? If education does not teach us these things, then what is education for?" -from "Natural History: The Forgotten Science" (1938)

“Modern natural history deals only incidentally with the identity of plants and animals, and only incidentally with their habits and behaviors. It deals principally with their relations to each other, their relation to the soil and water in which they grow, and their relations to the human beings who sing about ‘my country’ but see little or nothing of its inner workings. This new science of relationships is called ecology, but what we call it matters nothing. The question is, does the educated citizen know he is only a cog in an ecological mechanism? That if he will work with that mechanism his mental wealth and his material wealth can expand indefinitely? But that if he refuses to work with it, it will ultimately grind him to dust? If education does not teach us these things, then what is education for?” -from “Natural History: The Forgotten Science” (1938)

Figure 3: Aldo Leopold– author, scientist, ecologist, forester, conservationist, and environmentalist who is best known for his book A Sand County Almanac which has sold more than 2 million copies. Influential in the development of environmental ethics and in the movement for wilderness conservation. His ethics on nature and wildlife preservation had a profound impact on the environmental movement with his ecocentric and holistic ethics regarding land. Emphasized biodiversity and ecology and was the founder of the science of wildlife management.

You might've heard Glenn Miller's music at some time in your life, particularly when you see something pertaining to the 1930s or 1940s. Of course, some people might know him better because his plane went missing during WWII which has given rise to conspiracy theories.

You might’ve heard Glenn Miller’s music at some time in your life, particularly when you see something pertaining to the 1930s or 1940s. Of course, some people might know him better because his plane went missing during WWII which has given rise to conspiracy theories.

Figure 4: Glenn Miller– musician, arranger, composer, and bandleader in the swing era who was a bestselling recording artist and led one of the best known big bands. Recordings include “In the Mood”, “Moonlight Serenade”, “Pennsylvania 6-5000”, “Chattanooga Choo Choo”, “A String of Pearls”, “At Last”, “(I’ve Got a Gal In) Kalamazoo”, “American Patrol”, “Tuxedo Junction”, “Elmer’s Tune”, and “Little Brown Jug.” Also known for his plane disappearing over the English Channel which has given rise to many conspiracy theories (though in reality it was due to bad weather, pilot error, and mechanical failure).

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